قال الله تعالى

 {  إِنَّ اللَّــهَ لا يُغَيِّــرُ مَـا بِقَــوْمٍ حَتَّــى يُـغَيِّـــرُوا مَــا بِــأَنْــفُسِــــهِـمْ  }

سورة  الرعد  .  الآيـة   :   11

ahlaa

" ليست المشكلة أن نعلم المسلم عقيدة هو يملكها، و إنما المهم أن نرد إلي هذه العقيدة فاعليتها و قوتها الإيجابية و تأثيرها الإجتماعي و في كلمة واحدة : إن مشكلتنا ليست في أن نبرهن للمسلم علي وجود الله بقدر ما هي في أن نشعره بوجوده و نملأ به نفسه، بإعتباره مصدرا للطاقة. "
-  المفكر الجزائري المسلم الراحل الأستاذ مالك بن نبي رحمه الله  -

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لنكتب أحرفا من النور،quot لنستخرج كنوزا من المعرفة و الإبداع و العلم و الأفكار

الأديبــــة عفــــاف عنيبـــة

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أخبـــار ونشـــاطـــاتأخبـــار ونشـــاطـــات 

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rasoulallahbinbadisassalacerhso  wefaqdev iktab
الخميس, 29 تشرين1/أكتوير 2020 17:12

Contribution of Muslim Scientists to the World: An Overview of Some Selected Fields 4

كتبه  By Muhammad Adil Afridi
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Abul Qasim al-Zahrawi (963-1013 CE) who is recognized as Albucasis to the West, was a renowned surgeon in his time, at the court of Caliph al- Hakam II , whom students and patients from the muslim worldand Europe flocked to him. He wrote the medical encyclopedia al-Tasrif li man ajaz an-il-talif, which enclosed 30 segments of surgical facts and drawings of 200 surgical tools, majority of which he designed himself. The Encyclopedia was not only a typical one for physicians, but it was being used for five era later as the standard textbook on surgery in universities in Europe. He also accomplished many elusive operations such as Caesarean and was also the first to use silk thread for sewing wounds.xxviii Al – Idrisi was born in Cordoba, Spain in 1099. His major involvement was in medicinal plants which he labelled in many books, such as Kitab al-Jami-li-Sifat Ashtat al-Nabatat. He collected plants and compile data not described previously. A large number of new medicines from plants with their assessments suited to medical doctors were obtained through him. Al-Idrisi also prepared unique assistances to topography, as connected to economics, physical factors and cultural aspects. He penned geographical encyclopedias, the largest called Rawd-Unnas wa Nuzhalat Nafs (Pleasure of Men and Delight of Souls). Al-Idrisi also inscribed on the themes of fauna, zoology and therapeutically features. His work was soon translated into Latin and his books on geography especially stayed famous in the East and West for more than a few decades. xxix Abu Muhammad Ibn al-Baitar was one of the paramount Muslim scientists from Spain and one of the chief botanists and pharmacists of the Middle Ages. He travelled on many wandering voyages to gather plants as far as Africa and Asia. He wrote Kitab al-Jami alAdiwaya al-Mufrada, one of the supreme botanical accumulations of medicinal plant written in Arabic. The encyclopedia was completed of over 1,400 items, many of which were not known before. The book discussed the works of 150 authors, mostly Arabic and cited about 20 early Greek scientists. It was translated into Latin and printed as late as 1758.xxx. Ibn al-Baitar’s works were categorized by thoughts, investigation and 

classification and exercised a profound influence on Eastern as well as Western botany and medicine. Many of his works were translated into and published late in the western languages. Many earlier scientists had deliberated numerous portions of his books and quoted a number of references to it. Medicine is regarded as one of the extensive fields of life sciences to which Muslims had noticeable influence. These contributions were unprecedentedly comprehensive, divergent, and educative to the level that the recipient spectator of these everlasting influences may have faith in that medicine which may not be present earlier to the advancement of Muslims.xxxi When Islam emerged, Arabs, during the pre-Islamic era, were familiar with this primitive medicine. Prophet Muhammad, (Peace be upon him (p.b.u.h) called for medication. Osama bin Sharik (May Allah be pleased with him) quoted the Prophet as saying: “Seek medication because Allah has created a medication for each disease except senility” Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) was known to strive for medication with honey, dates and natural herbs, among other materials which were known as “Prophetic Medicine”. However, Muslim scientists did not confine themselves to “Prophetic Medicine”; they understood that life sciences, including medicine, necessitate constant investigation and surveillance. Muslims medical scientists were described by their understanding of specialization. They were, for example, categorized into ophthalmologists identified as (Al-Kahalyin), surgeons, practitioners of the socalled hijama, known as hajjamoun, and gynecologists, among others.xxxii During the Abbasid era, Muslims outshone in all branches of medicine. They amended the mistakes made by their former counterparts in various concepts. Moreover, they did not constrained themselves to sheer copying and translation; rather, they continued doing research and rectified the errors of their predessesors. xxxiii Conclusion Contributions of Muslims in science, technology and entrepreneurship from the 8th to 16th century is a noteworthy expansion in human antiquity. The Muslim scholars not only conserved the ancient knowledge, but also transformed it into major new contributions to basic science and technology. The basic contributions were in fields such as astronomy, chemistry,  mathematics, philosophy, geography, and physics, which constitute the basis of modern science and technology. They also provided connectivity between Arab and the other parts of the world like the Far East, Middle East, and European regions by distributing knowledge. Islamization of Knowledge (IOK) is the correct solution for our problems. It seems that Islamization of Knowledge is essential to be established because it will cleanse the contemporary corrupted knowledge which is believed to be the main downfall of Muslims. Muslim societies can embrace the spirit of scientific progress and accomplishment of early Islamic scholars. They could adopt and adapt the technological advancements of the West to address their own conditions and contribute their own discoveries through promoting Islamization of Knowledge in their education sector because it integrates the beautiful heritage of Islam with modern science by undertaking a certain methodology. Bur certainly integration of two types of knowledge needs a qualified Islamized expert or institution which undertake the Islamic worldview comprehensively and the Sciences of the time. Science and technology can prosper among Muslims again, and others, if the conditions for free inquiry, proper incentives, institutional support, and the benefits of science are encouraged.

REFERENCES Ahmad Y Hassan, Islamic Technology: An illustrated history, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press(1986). Abdalla, Mohamad, The Fate of Islamic Science between the Eleventh and Sixteenth Centuries: A Comprehensive Review of Scholarship from Ibn Khaldun to the Present. Humanomics. (2004). Ahmad, Huma. Muslim Contributions to Science, Philosophy, and the Arts. Jannah.org. April 1997. Jannah , Ajram, Dr. Kasem, Miracle of Islamic Science, Appendix B, Knowledge House Publishers, ISBN 0911119434. (1992) Ali, Syed Ameer, The Spirit of Islam, Gorgias Press, NJ, USA. (1891) Armstrong, Karen. Holy War: The Crusades and their Impact on Today’s World. Doubleday: New York, (1991) Armstrong, Karen. Islam: A Short History. Random House (2002) Ashtor, E. A Social and Economic History of the Near East in the Middle Ages. London. (1976)

Brend, Barbara. Islamic Art. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. (1991) Chaney, Eric. Tolerance, Religious Competition and the Rise and Fall of Muslim Science. Harvard University, . Chapra, Umer M. The Future of Economics: An Islamic Perspective. The Islamic Foundation. (2000) Colin Ronan, Science: Its History and Development among World’s Cultures; New York. (1982) Davies, Paul. Super force: The Search for a Grand Unified Theory of Nature. Penguin: London. (1995) Deen, Sayyed Misbah. Science under Islam: Rise, Decline and Revival. Lulu Edition,. Print. (2007) Eaton, Gai. Islam and the Destiny of Man, The Islamic Texts Society: Cambridge, (1994). El Diwani, Rachida. Islamic Contributions to the West. Lake Superior State University: Print. (2005) Fakhry, Majid. A History of Islamic Philosophy, New York: Columbia University Press. (1970) Falagas, Matthew, Effie Zarkadoulia, and George samonis. Arab Science in the Golden Age (750-1258 C.E.) and Today. FASEB Journal 20. 1581-1586. (2006) George Sarton, A Guide to the History of Science; Mass.; (1952) Ghazanfar, S.M. Capitalist Traditions in Early ArabIslamic Civilization. Muslim Heritage. (2007) Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilization, Haye, Kh. A. Stories of Great Muslims, Brentwood: American Trust Publications. (1991) Hitti, Phillip, History of the Arabs. 10 th Edition. St. Martin’s Press; New York. (1970) Irving, T.B. The Tide of Islam, Cedar Rapids: Igrams Press. (1982) Hunt Janin, The Pursuit of learning in the Islamic World 610-2003, Mcfarland company, Inc, USA(2005) Ismail RajÊ Al FarËqÊ, Islamization of Knowledge: The Problem, Principles and the Workplan General Principles and Work Plan, IIIT, Herndon, Virgenia, U.S.A. (2000) John Hayes, The Genius of Arab Civilization: Source of Renaissance; MIT Press; (1983) John W. Draper, History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, Harper & Row; Vol.2; (1876 & 1904) L. Schaya, Contemplation and Action in Judaism and Islam, in Y. Ibish and I. Marculescu (1978) (eds.),

Contemplation and Action in World Religions, Seattle and London, Maria Menocal, The Arabic Role in Medieval Literary History; (1987) Michell, George. Architecture of the Islamic World, London: Thames and Hudson. (1995) Mirza, Dr. Muhammad R. and Sidiiqi, Muhammad Iqbal. Muslim Contribution to Science, Chicago: Kazi Publications. (1986) Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. A Young Muslim’s Guide to the Modern World, Chicago: Kazi Publications. (1994) Pierce Butler, Fifteenth Century of Arabic Authors in Latin Translation, in the McDonald Presentation Volume; Freeport, N.Y. (1933) Qadir, C.A. Philosophy and Science in the Muslim World, London: Croom Helm. (1988) Robert Briffault, The Making of Humanity, London. (1938) Said, Edward. Orientalism, Routledge & Kegan Paul: London. (1978) Shustery, A. M. A. Outlines of Islamic Culture, Sh. Muhammad Ashraf: Lahore. (1976) Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas, Islam and Secularism, Islamic Youth Movement of Malaysia: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. (1978) T. Arnold and A. Guillaume, The Legacy of Islam, Oxford University Press. (1931) Tina Stiefel, The Intellectual Revolution in Twelfth Century Europe; St. Martin’s Press, N.Y. (1989) W. Montgomery Watt, Islamic Surveys: The Influence of Islam on Medieval Europe; Edinburgh, England; . (1972)

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