قال الله تعالى

 {  إِنَّ اللَّــهَ لا يُغَيِّــرُ مَـا بِقَــوْمٍ حَتَّــى يُـغَيِّـــرُوا مَــا بِــأَنْــفُسِــــهِـمْ  }

سورة  الرعد  .  الآيـة   :   11

ahlaa

" ليست المشكلة أن نعلم المسلم عقيدة هو يملكها، و إنما المهم أن نرد إلي هذه العقيدة فاعليتها و قوتها الإيجابية و تأثيرها الإجتماعي و في كلمة واحدة : إن مشكلتنا ليست في أن نبرهن للمسلم علي وجود الله بقدر ما هي في أن نشعره بوجوده و نملأ به نفسه، بإعتباره مصدرا للطاقة. "
-  المفكر الجزائري المسلم الراحل الأستاذ مالك بن نبي رحمه الله  -

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الجمعة, 11 كانون1/ديسمبر 2020 12:12

ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION: FACTORS BEHIND ITS GLORY AND DECLINE 3

كتبه  By Tijani Ahmad Ashimi Assistant Professor, Dr., Department of General Studies, Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM).
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Characteristics of Islamic Civilization
1- Based on the Tawhid -
Al- Faruqi(1992) argued that Muslim civilization was the first universal civilization that was based on a pure and strict Unitarianism (unity of God) .The only One Who deserves submission, the only One Who deserves worship and the only One Who deserves absolute obedience.
2- Universality
It is undeniable fact, that one of the characteristics of Islam stated al-Qardawi (1985) is universality. Automatically, it means Islamic civilization was universal civilization, and the first civilization which embraces the entire humanity. It declared equality of all human beings of all descents, races, colors. It is attributed to all Muslims on an equal basis. Therefore, this kind of civilization is open to the contribution of all members of the Muslim Ummah regardless of their race, ethnicity, or color, and even non-Muslim citizens. Because it is based on principle of Quranic verse “Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is he who is the most righteous of you” (49: 13).
3- Moderate Rationalism
Another unique characteristic of the Islamic Civilization is moderate rationalism. One of the beauty of Islam argued Kamal Hasan (2011) is religion of moderation. It means Islam opposes any sort of extremism in all dimensions of human life. It instead invites its people to exercise moderation, as such it gives human reason a high position; because its faith is based on reasoning and conviction, it rejects superstitious and unfounded beliefs. However, it does not go extreme to deny the truths which are not directly related to empirical knowledge but which can be proved empirical knowledge and rational thinking.
4- Tolerance
Indeed, it is undeniable fact that, tolerance towards people of different religions (especially Christians and Jews) is the most important characteristics of Islamic Civilization argues al Faruqi(1998), this fact is proven through the constitution of Al-Madinah that was built by wisdom of the prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) , where Muslims and non-Muslims were dwelling together in harmonious manner, and where the true tolerance, pluralism and peaceful co-existence had prevailed. And minorities enjoyed a high level of tolerance and freedom of religion and economic pursuit. Undoubtedly, this characteristic is peculiar for a civilization based on religious foundations.
5. Integrated and balanced civilization
The last characteristics of this marvelous civilization is integrated and balanced civilization.it is what al- Qardawi(1985) calls altawazun,( balance) which is also one of the characteristics of Islam As a matter of fact, Islamic civilization, integrates the faith with the state, and integrate empirical science with revelation, i.e. there is no conflict between religion and science. As such, there is no room for secularism; because the civilization integrates the body with the spirit (material vs. spiritual) and integrates
the worldly life with the last life. It is a civilization that based on the Quranic verse that urges Muslims to link their worldly routine activities to the hereafter. “But seek, with the (wealth) which Allah has bestowed on thee, the Home of the Hereafter, nor forget thy portion in this world: but do thou good, as Allah has been good to thee, and seek not (occasions for) mischief in the land: for Allah loves not those who do mischief." (28: 77). In fact, there is no doubt that the above characteristics have contributed to the glory of Islamic civilization and its excellence above other creations. As such the early Muslims scholars in the
early centuries have contributed immensely to various aspects of knowledge, ranging from medicine, optometry, chemistry, astronomy, philosophy, religion , theology, geography and others, along with other important factors that also contributed to the glory of Muslim civilization in the early centuries, as such Islamic civilization has reached the pinnacle of development and progress in many dimensions in the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth centuries respectively. However, what are the factors behind the rise of Islamic Civilization?
قراءة 593 مرات آخر تعديل على الأربعاء, 16 كانون1/ديسمبر 2020 08:12

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